Hello, and welcome to another edition of“FNR Ask the Expert”. My name is Wendy Mayer, I am thecommunications coordinator for theDepartment of Forestry and NaturalResources at Purdue University. Todaywe are going to be talking withextension wildlife specialist, JarredBrooke, and fisheries specialist,Mitch Zischke about managing your pond andland for fish and wildlife. The two ofthem have a website that they have puttogether, along with Purdue Extension andin conjunction with Indiana Illinois SeaGrant, that talks about those exacttopics. So, with that, if you have anyquestions for Jarred or Mitch aboutmanaging your pond or your property forfish and wildlife, questions about fishand wildlife, please put those in thecomments below and we will get to thoseas we have time. With that, I’m going totoss it over to Mitch and he’s going toshare a little bit more about the pondand Wildlife website. Great, thanks Wendy. So, we’ve developed this newwebsite that has a whole bunch ofresources for managing your land andyour ponds for wildlife, for fishing, andfor other recreation activities. So, letme see if I can just share my screenhere, just to give you a bit of a look atwhat the website looks like. Ithink the URL will be posted inthe comments, but this is basically the website. Let me go back to the homepage here. This website was producedas a project that we’ve been working onfor the past two years where we arebringing in campus specialists, so Jarredand I as well as Fred Whitford, over inthe Purdue Pesticides Program. And we’reworking with a lot of our countyeducators who have an interest in theseareas and we really wanted to develop abig toolkit of resources that can helplandowners manage their lands better. Private lands can sometimes fall inbetween some of the managementjurisdictions of say thestate DNR or something like that, and alot of people don’t have experience ordon’t know where to start with managingtheir lands and improving their land. So, this website is really meant to besort of a one-stop shop where people cango, get some information, and download some ofour Purdue Extension publications. Theycan find contacts in their counties andthen they can also reach out and contactus if they have specific questions. I think that’s a pretty goodoverview of the project. Like I said,this is a pretty new project, we’re stillbuilding the website and adding new things tothe website all the time and we’re happyto work with people and to answer asmany questions as they have. The firstthing I want to talk about, Jarred if youcan speak too, we have added a new part ofthe pond management website, called Findyour County Contact. That can help peoplefind resources, in addition to yourselfand Mitch, that can help them in theirlocal area. Can you share a little bitabout what people can expect to findthere? Yeah, absolutely. So, I’m going to go ahead and share my screen now, and take you back tothe website. Hopefully that shows up there. Oneof the questions we get a lot of timesis, how can I get help on my propertywith managing my pond or managing my fishand wildlife? Well, Mitch and I are onlytwo people, and certainly we can’t travelacross the whole state to do this. Luckily, there are all kinds ofprofessionals that already exist in yourcounty that can help you come up withplans for your pond or for your propertyto improve them for fish and wildlife. It has compiled contacts that you find in your countyto reach out to get help,ask questions, help come up with ideas, and even insome instances finding some cost share,especially on the wide scale, to implement some of thewildlife management practices that we’regoing to talk about. So, if you go to ourwebsite and click on the “Findyour County Contact” page, it’s going to pullup a new screen and then you’re going tosee two things on here. One is gonna befind your county contacts by your county,and then another will be who can help. This has state and federal organizations tonon-governmental conservationorganizations that provide assistance tolandowners, regarding the fish and wildlifeon their property. So, you can click onthese different boxes and learn about how theparties can help you on your land. So,this is the Department of NaturalResources, they have district wildlifebiologists that can answer wildlifequestions and help you create a plan forwildlife. They have fisheries biologists as well asdistrict foresters, all whose job it isto work with private landowners. So, it’sa really good way to find help, and a lotof these resources you’re gonna find areactually going to be free to you as a landowner, so you don’t have to pay oranything. There are other opportunitieswhere you can hire private consultantsand these can be forestry consultants,wildlife consultants, or pond andfishery consultants. These folksgenerally have a business that they helpprovide resources to landowners. Sometimes they can be above and beyond whatsome of the other resources can provide,but they usually charge a fee for thedifferent services that they provide. So, these areall good options for ways to find help. So, if you click on by county,it will drop you a list of counties. We’regonna go to Tippecanoe County, sincethat’s where we are now, and it’s gonnaprovide you with your DNR contacts,and contacts from various otherorganizations that you can reach out tothat are in your county and can help youon your property. So, we encourage you gothere, visit, and see who’s around in yourcounty to help. Great, thank you. Awesomeresources for the general public inaddition to yourselves. First questionfor you, Mitch, this time of year peopleare starting to get into fishing, they’reworried about what’s their pond andwhy aren’t they catching thesame thingsthat they’ve been able to catch in pastyears? So, can you help them with what mayhave happened to their fish? Yeah. So,that’s a good question. It’s a questionthat I get somewhat frequently. People in the spring and early summer,they start thinking about fishingagain in their ponds. Last year and theyears before they may have had goodfishing, and this year they can’tcatch any fish, they can’t really see toomany fish swimming around and it’s alittle confusing, because it seems likethe fish may have just disappeared. And, in those cases, what may havehappened is the pond may have actuallyundergone a fish kill during the wintertime. And so, let me just share my screenhere, I have a diagram that I can pull upthat can help us talk a little bit aboutfish kills. So hopefully you cansee this, let me just scroll down to therelevant section here. But basically, incertain seasons of the year the pond canundergo drastic changes in temperatureand drastic changes in the amount ofoxygen that’s in the water, and these changes when they occur reallyquickly can can cause issues with fishkills. So, hopefully you can see myscreen now. But, basically in the wintertime what happens is ice forms over thepond and it forms a barrier between thewater and the air, and that’s one of theways that oxygen gets into the water isexchanging with the air. When there’sclear ice on the pond that’s still okaybecause sunlight penetrates and canstill allow our plants to grow in theplants in the pond produce the oxygen,but if that ice gets covered with snowthat stops light penetrating and itactually causes some of those plants todie. And if these situations persist fora long time, you get lots of ice cover,lots of snow and what can happen is asthese plants die and decompose a lot ofthe oxygen is used up in the pond andthe fish start to die because there’snot enough oxygen there. So, thiscan happen in some winters, the moresevere the winter they’re more likelythat this can happen. Because the pond’s frozen, often whathappens is these fish die and they sinkto the bottom and you never see them andso that’s why in the spring or in theearly summer it can be confusing whysome of your fish have disappeared. This is one of the more commonreasons that ponds may see a lackof fish in the new season. And related tothat, we have a question from Dan, and hesays, Mitch, can you explain turnoverplease?Yeah. So, turnover in ponds and inother water bodies basically relates tothe mixing of the water. And in someseasons, like in the spring and the fall,the water is actually mixed really well,but in other seasons, like summer,what happens is the water at the surfacecan warm up and it actually then getsless dense because it’s warmer and itactually causes layers in the watercolumn. I have anotherphoto here of a diagram that I canshow you. And basically what happens isthe differences in density between thewater causesthere to be layers inthe water column. So, particularlyduring the summertime, what happens isthese layers get really, stronglyseparated, the surface water is very warmand not very dense, the bottom layersare cool and dense and this moves fisharound in the water it causes dissolvedoxygen to change in the water column. Andbasically, what turnover refers to iswhen there’s some event that causesthese waters to mix back together. Typically in the late summer this can bebecause of a storm event or it could bejust because the water is changing intemperature, again, and that water bodyturns over and sort of starts to mixtogether. This is a natural thing thathappens, but in some scenarios if youget a lot of water in your pond that haslow dissolved oxygen, if that then mixeswith the rest of the pond it can alsocause fish kills that occur sometimes inthe summer. Great, thanks for filling usin on that. Jarred, we have a question for you aboutwildlife. What can I do to create a better bathabitat in my 20 acres of woods? Thisquestion comes in from Liz. Alright,good question. I’m gladbats were brought up becausebats are very important. If you thinkabout some of the services they provide,not only to agricultural producers byeating pests, but also consuming forestpests and other things. Bats arereally important to the ecosystem. Unfortunately most of our bats arehaving a really rough time right now, anda lot of that has to do with a diseasethat’s called white-nose syndrome. It’s a exotic disease that came theythink came over from Europe, and it’s had ahuge impact on a lot of our bat species. That being said, there are still thingsthat landowners can do to improve theirproperty for wildlife, for bats inparticular. If you think about what batsuse, some of our bats are cavedwelling bats in the winter andthen they come out in the summer. In thesummertime, that’s when they’re havingtheir pups, they’re young, so they needplaces to have those pups. A lotof bats roost in our woods and theyforage in our woods, so it’s reallyimportant that we have these forestareas for bats. In fact, all of our batsuse forested areas in Indiana. So some ofthe things you can do as a landowner toimprove your property for bats would bethings like, creating snags in your woods. So, I’m going to show you a picture herethat I have and it’s of a snag. When Isay snags some people may not know whatI’m talking about,but a snag is just a dead, standing tree. As you can see there, there’s somebark left on that tree and bats willactually roost underneath that bark, andso having some of these dead standingtrees is really important for roostingfor bats. They’re also going to havetheir pups and things under thatexfoliating bark or that peeling offbark. So, a lot of these snags can occurnaturally, in a stand, so if a tree diesfrom insects or disease or a fungusor something,then you’re gonna havethose naturally in the stands. But, in somewoods you may not have very many snags,and so, you can actually createsnags by killing some standing trees. When you do this, you want to be careful thatyou’re not killing trees ofvalue or trees that are important towildlife species. You want to selectspecies that may not have as muchwildlife benefit, and you’re going to dothat by a technique called girdling. That’s just essentially killing the tree, andletting it stand, the nest can provide roostsites for bats. Also, by looking at whatspecies, what overstory tree species youhave can be a way to identify how goodyour woods are for bats. Bats liketrees that have peeling off bark,so bats will roost in trees likewhite oaks and shagbark hickory andother species like that. So, if you havethose in your woods, those can be good trees tokeep around, and to look for batsusing it for roots. But, beyond roosting, think of batforage. If you think about what bats areeating, bats are eating primarily insects, so all of our bats areinsectivores. So, there’s ways that youcan create better foraging areas forbats in your woods. This can bethrough creating small little openingsin the woods and that can be donethrough a timber harvest. It can be donejust by removing single trees forfirewood and things like that. Providing some of these openings can beimportant to create foraging areas forbats. It’s gonna open the canopy up alittle bit,allow more sunlight to the ground, butalso make it easier for bats to to flyaround amongst all the trees. Thosecan be some some ways that you canimprove your property for bats. Evenadding in some water features like ashallow pond, the bats will look for it as well. Good to know. Always good to help ourbats, I know they’re an underappreciatedspecies. We always talk about the deerand all the other, pretty little animalsthat we see out there, but the bats arecertainly an important part of ourecosystem. Heroes of the night. Definitely. A little scary to some people,but certainly serve their purpose. So,Jarred,you talked about some of the woodsfeatures that people can do and clearingsand things like that. I guess, whereshould people start?Should you know what type ofwildlife or things that you’re trying tosupport on your property before youstart making these decisions andmanagement property ideas? Absolutely. I get this question this all the time, and one of the more importantquestions I ask them is, what are your goals? What do you hopeyour woods will do you? How do you use your woods? Questions likethis can help get towards those goalsand objectives, and the clearer that theobjectives that you have in mind, the morefocused you can make your management. So,it’s always good to start out with a plan, just like howyou wouldn’t build a house without ablueprint, you shouldn’t really thinkabout managing your property forwildlife without a plan on how you’regonna do it. And that can be asformal or informal of a plan as you want. Honestly, the more details you have in it thebetter, because this is going to be bettercorrections, but you need to think aboutwhat species are of interest toyou. A lot of times lands have veryfocused objectives, for instance, a lot of people purchase property forthe sole reason of hunting on it, and sotheir objectives might be to providebetter hunting and provide better habitatfor those animals, but thats when you plan aproperty for wildlife. That’s kindof a vague goal, and it’s hard to figureout what exactly they do because, wildlife species have different habitat needs. So, the more focused you can have yourobjectives, listing out whatspecies are of interest to you, how you planon using the property, why is owning theproperty important to you, whether it’sfrom recreation, seeing wildlife,making income off the property from timber harvest, or something like that. Remember, what is your goal?The planning process is really important, soyou can focus that management to meetyour objectives and goals. Once you have those objectives and goalsin mind, then you can work towards takingin the current condition of yourproperty, kind of access it, and then think of how canyou use different habitat managementtechniques to improve your property foryour wildlife species of interest. So, that’s a lotof information in a short question andshort answer, but again, luckily there areprofessionals out there whose job it isto help you navigate all those questionsand all the options. So a good place tostart, if you’re really not sure of whereto start, is to contact someone in yourcounty that can help you out and kind ofguide you through that planningprocess. Thats great, Jarred. Mitch, we’re going to toss this back to you. We have a coupleof pond questions in the hopper. First,what is the best way to reduce plantgrowth and algae on a small pond? Oursseems to be overgrown and fishing is achallenge. Yeah. Ifeel like in most situations trying tomanage your pond really boils down totrying to manage the vegetation inthat pond, because that’s the issuethat we most commonly encounter. So there are lots of different ways thatyou can try and reduce plant growth andreduce algae in the pond. I guessthe first step is to try and identifywhy those plants and algae may be therein the first place. Plants neednutrients and they need sunlight,and the best thing that you can do forpond management is to try andminimize the amount of excessivenutrients that are entering the pond. If you have lawn fertilizer,or fertilizers from ag fields orother nutrients from heavilywooded areas, thoseexcessive nutrients entering the pond isgoing to cause that plant growth andgonna cause those problems. Yes, thereare ways to treat those problems withchemicals or with mechanical removalof plants and algae, but you’re alwaysgoing to be battling that problem if youcan’t try and address some of thoseunderlying concerns. Sometimes this iseasier said than others, sometimes youhave complete control over your pond inthe land surrounding your pond andsometimes you don’t, sometimes it mightbe a neighbor’s land that runs into yourpond. But, one of the easiest ways to tryand reduce some of these nutrient inputs,besides you know minimizing fertilizeruse, is to plant or retain some buffervegetation around the pond, so if youhave plants and grasses around the pondthey’re gonna be trapping a lot of thenutrients before they actually get toyour pond and so this can actuallydramatically reduce the amount ofnutrients going in the pond andtherefore the amount of growth thatyou’re gonna get. But, some growth isalways inevitable and sometimes you cando all the right things and you stillend up with the excessive plant growthand excessive algae, and so, you then needto look at some other means likechemical control for these. Whenyou look to do some sort of control it’sreally important to understand whatplants and algae you have there. So, Ijust want to point you towards one ofthe publications we have on our website,it’s a fairly comprehensive publicationcalled, “Identifying and Managing AquaticVegetation”. And this goes through all thepros and cons of plants in a pond. It goesthrough the different types of plantsthat can help you identify which plantsor which algae you might have in yourpond. Hopefully this is not scrolling toofast to make everybody dizzy, but I wantto get down to the towards the end ofthe document here. What’s great aboutthis publication is it gives you a really sort of clear guideline aboutwhat things you can use to treat thedifferent types of plants in your pond. This is a really good startingpoint to identify some of the thingsthat you can do to try and reduce theplants and algae that are in your pond. But, typically, I always say that the bestapproach is to try and deal withthe problem that you have in thefirst place, rather than just trying tocontrol the problem once it’s there, butusually a combination of those twoapproaches is what you need to do. Great,and we have a question related to that,kind of in relation to the design andmanagement of your pond. First of all, canplant growth be mitigated by design suchas minimum edge depths? And then secondly,are there management or designs thatlimit the turnover that you talked aboutearlier? Can you talk about those separately? Yeah,both of those are good questions, and yes,you can do things with your pond designand there are certain aspects of your pond that canminimize plant growth. Like I said theyneed nutrients and they also needsunlight, and typically shallow areas ofa pond get more sunlight than deeperareas, so if you minimize the amountof shallow areas in your pond, you’regonna have less areas where those plantscan grow. So, if you have avery shallow pond area out, you’re likelygoing to have a lot of plants growing. Ifyou only have a sort of fairly small,shallow area around the edge, then you’regoing to have less plants in that pond. Other things you can do is reduce areasfor those plants to root into the ground,so you might put rocks or riprap alongthe pond edge, you might put some blackplastic liner on the bottom ofthe pond to try and prevent those plantsgrowing, and you can even do things whereyou can add dye to the water whichprevents some of that lightpenetrating it and promoting plantgrowth. You know, these are all somewhatexpensive things to do, particularly ifthey’re things you’ve got to keep doingover and over again, but they are waysthat you can try and mitigate plantgrowth through pond design. And then,looking at turnovers, that idea ofstratification and turnover in the pond,I’ll just flick us back to thatphoto so we’ve got it all fresh in ourmind. I can navigate what’s goingon here. So like I said, turnoveris really related to theselayers forming in your pond, and so toprevent turnover happening the best wayis to try and prevent these layersestablishing in the first place,and the best way to do that is toprovide some sort of pond circulationdevice. You can get some devices thatsuck bottom water and then pump it outat the top, and this sort of keeps thoselayers broken down in your layer andyour pond well mixed. This will prevent them down the track,these layers forming and thenmixing and causing problems. You can alsouse aerators. They’re not quite asefficient as circulating the watervertically in the pond, but they doprovide some circulation in thepond. Thanks Mitch. Jarred, back to you. What are some things I can do right now,as I’m looking at spring and earlysummer, to get my property ready forwildlife? Be that deer seasonor whatever might be coming up later inthe year. Are there things I should bedoing right now to get started? Yes, sothere are certain things that we can donow, the weather is getting nicereveryone wants to be outside, working onthe property. So there’s a number ofthings that we can do on our propertiesto improve them for wildlife. When westart out, one of the things thatyou should not be doing this time ofyear to improve your property for wildlife. So, the best thing to stop doingright now to improve your property for wildlife is mowing. So, we don’t want to mowour properties right now. If you have oldfields or native grass plantings orthings like that, you want to stay offthe mower and not mow this time of year,because we have a lot of things going onin the wildlife world. We have deer fawnsare being born, and they’re found out inthese open fields. We have birds nesting,we’re almost to the peak of nesting ofnorthern bobwhite, or in a little bit we’regoing to start seeing pheasant broodsrunning around and all kinds of songbirds are nesting out of these open, grassy fields. So, one thing you can doright now is park the mower, and spendyour time doing something else. We have asaying in a wildlife world whencomes to mowing, it’s called RMS, it’sthis syndrome that people get calledrecreational mowing syndrome. People want to mow to mow because itlooks clean, all you’re doing is you’reactually destroying a lot of wildlifehabitat. So, park the mower until Augustor September, let those fields grow up,and let them be good nurseries andnesting sites for a lot of differentwildlife creatures. This time of year isalso a really good time of the year to thinkabout planting food plots. So, if you havean area that you can plant a food plotin, right now is a really good time to beplanting those summer food plots, so it canprovide nutrition to things like deerand turkeys and other wildlife species. This is also a really good time of yearto be in the woods and thinking abouthow you might manage the woods comethe fall or winter. So, be in any woodslooking at how much light is comingthrough the canopy. Do you have a standof timber where there’s not a whole lotof light coming through? Then it may belimited in its quality for variouswildlife species, however it may providehabitat for other wildlife species. Looking how much lights coming throughthe overstory, thinking maybe I can comethrough and remove some trees to allowmore sunlight to the ground to allowmore understory vegetation to grow up. You can also be walking through yourwoods looking at how much vegetation isat the ground. There’s not a whole lot onthe ground, then it’s not providing a lotof cover and food for a lot of wildlifespecies. Identifying which trees you havein the overstory, which trees you have in theunderstory can be good. Thisis a really good time of year to do thatbecause the leaves are out, we can seethe leaves and different things likethat, so identification of trees andplants is a lot easier. Then that canhelp inform the decisions we make laterwhen we come back and maybe want toremove trees that might have less valueto wildlife like sugar maple and kind ofencourage and favor species that aremore important to wildlife like our Oaks,hickories that produce acorns andhickory nuts that are hard mast, or treesthat produce soft mast berries,or other things like that. So it can be agood time of year to kind of evaluatewhat your property looks like and planfor how you’re going to manage it lateron. Note to self, if I don’t live in thesuburbs and I need to mow my lawn so thecity doesn’t come after me then I canpark the mower. That’s right, yeah. Iknow people think fields lookweedy, or snaky when you don’t mow them, but that’skind of the point right? You want them tolook kind of messy, wildlife like themess. Park the mower. Speaking of mess,Mitch, we’re gonna toss this back to you. My pond is always brown and murky, howcan I fix this? Yeah, not a greatsituation to be in. It’s not nice to lookat, but it’s also not very not good forthe fish that are in there, it makesdifficult for fish to see, to catch food,things like that, it can also make fishingtricky. Ponds get murky primarilybecause of sediment suspended in thewater. This can be caused by the type ofsoil that the pond was constructed on inthe first place. But, typically, if thepond’s at least a few years old,most of that should settle down. So, the the way that ponds get murky arereally two ways. It’s by sediment flowingin, so if you don’t have muchvegetation on the land surrounding thepond and you get a big rainfall event,not only is it washing nutrients in, butit’s washing a lot of that loosesoil, that sediment and it’s going tomake your pond murky. The other way isthat things go into the pond andstir up the silt and the sediment onthe bottom. So you might allowlivestock to go in the pondfor them to drink and stuff like that,and that’s going to cause yourpond to be murky. Some other things, isyou may have some undesirable fishspecies in there that sort of rootaround and the bottom and cause thosesediments to be disturbed and yourpond to be murky. So, there are someof the ways that it gets murky. If you’relooking to use your pond forfishing, then you want to try andkeep livestock out because that’sgoing to cause problems. And, if you dohave someone undesirable speciesin there, it’s good to be able toidentify those and maybe look at ways ofremoving them. Like we said earlier,if you do have sediments washing in fromrainfall, then try and plant some buffervegetation around the pond to trap someof those sediments. Great. We all want toclean up those ponds so they don’t lookdirty and nasty. We know that wildlifelike messy, as Jarred said but, maybe thefish don’t like the murk. Fish like it clean. So, Jarred, back to you. Edge habitat seems beneficial to mostwildlife. On small properties, what is agood balance for types of landscape weshould have? Yeah, so that’s a goodquestion. There are a lot of wildlifespecies that we would consider “edgespecies”, meaning that they can live inmultiple different types of vegetation and theylive kind of in the edge or the zone between two vegetationtypes. Maybe it’s between a forest and a grassland. Species like deer,turkey, quail and others would be what wecall “edge species”. There are some speciesthat don’t like edge, so you need tothink about what are your objectives. What wildlife species are of interestto you, and then determine if thosespecies will benefit from more edgeor maybe not benefit from edge. When itcomes to small properties they can be achallenge, because you may be limitedin what you can do by what you have,right? We can take a good look atresources, what kind of vegetation typesand things occur on the propertiesaround you and then think about how youcan create the missing pieces on yourproperty. So, let’s say you have a smallwoodlot, five or 10 acres, thenthere’s maybe ways that you can improvethat maybe by creating more snags inthere, maybe it has a water featurethat’s more attractive towildlife. But, if you have aproperty that has multiple different edge typeslike a crop and a field, then kind ofimproving the area between thosevegetation types where they meet, thatedge can be really good. That can bedone with things like field borders oncrop fields, where it meets a wood lot,or even doing something that we calledge feathering, when you actually gointo the woodlot and remove some treesalong the edge to allow more sunlight andto create kind of that brushy cover thata lot of wild species need, especiallyspecies like quail, which are on declinebecause they’ve lost a lot of thatfence row areas that used tobe pretty prevalent. I think we might have lost Jarred therefor a second. We’ll toss it back to Mitch. In looking at fish, everyone wantsthat big fish, everyone wants that bigcatch. What should I do if I’m onlycatching bass that are only 8to 12 inches in size? Do I need bigger fish?Do I need to put other things in therewith them to make my bass grow? What do I need to do to catch that bigbluegill that I’m looking for? Help meout. Yeah, that’s a good question. And yeah,it’s common for people to think if they’re catching small fish intheir pond then they need to do somethinglike add some bigger fish or add somenew fish or something like that, butin most cases small fish, andonly small fish, is an indication thatyou have too many fish in your pond. So, for example, if you’re only catchingbass that are 8 to 12 inches in size,they should be growing a lot morethan that. So, what’s likely happened is thatthey have become overcrowded. There’s notenough space and there’s not enough foodto go around, and so their growth isseverely stunted. So, the best way toactually remedy that is to remove someof those bass because you will open upresources for those that remain. It’s the same with bluegill, if you’regetting only bluegill that are only threefour or five inches in size, it’stypically because there aretoo many there and you should beremoving some of those to try andpromote the growth of those that arethere. People alwaysthink they need to stock new fish intheir pond to fix some problem, but mostfish problems can actually be solved byharvesting fish out, rather than puttingnew fishing in, and in a lot of cases new fishwill just make the problem worse. So,in our new pond managementsort of guide here, we have some examplesof different fish population scenariosyou might like in your pond. For some reason I always forget how to dothis, but here we go. So, thisguide is available on our website now,but basically we outline fourdifferent pond fish options here thatyou might be able to strive for. A lot ofpeople want to strive for this numbertwo option, which is all-purpose fishingwhere you have some big bass, some bigbluegill, and a nice mix of everything,but there are other things that you cando if you’re more interested in justtrophy bass or just trophy sunfish. But, the way that we actually managethese fish populations is changingthe size and the number of fish that weharvest. The more fish that weharvest, the more you’re going to open upspace for the ones that remain, andtypically the larger they cangrow. And we have another pond questionfor you here, Mitch. What is a goodbalance of aquatic species that can beused to manage the excess plant growth,other than just using carp? That’s a goodquestion. So usingfish to control the vegetation is oneone way that we can try and control thevegetation. There’s actually not a lotof fish that can help us with that. You mentioned carps, a grass carp, for anexample of a large fish that you can putin a pond to control some of the pondweeds, and these these can be relativelysuccessful in some cases. One other fishthat can be used to control vegetationin ponds is tilapia. So, you may have heard of tilapia,you’ve probably seentilapia in the grocery store, but tilapia are a warm water fish, but theyactually can eat algae in ponds. Sothey can help eat the microscopic algaeand some of that filamentous algae thatgrows in the ponds. They may not eat someof the other types of plants, but theycan help with algae. Tilapia can be great because they can helpcontrol the algae in the pond, theycan also grow pretty rapidly and thenyou can actually harvest them to eat. Thedownside for tilapia is that they don’tsurvive through the winter, and oncewater temperatures dropbelow about 55 degrees, they’re going tostart dying off. And if you have a largenumber of tilapia in your pond and theystart to die off, all of the nutrientsthat are contained in their body aregoing to go into your pond and thenlikely cause more vegetation issues inthe future. So, if you do decide to stocktilapia in your pond,we recommend that you try and get asmany of them as you can out before theydie. One, they’re great to eat, but alsothis will help some of those issues downthe track. Tilapia and grass carp, they are the two main fishspecies that people can use to helpcontrol aquatic plants. Great, and just areminder if you have any additionalquestions go ahead and put those in thecomments section here on Facebook liveand we will either get to those here inthe next few minutes, or we’ll have Mitch and Jarred answer thoseafter the fact. One of the things, Jarred,we have a question about is abandonedwildlife. We’re trying to attract allthese neat species to our land, but whatdo I do if I see a fawn in my flower bed or some abandoned raccoonsor things like that? What should I do?Yeah, very timely question, right? We’restarting to see lots of young wildlifeshow up nowadays, and people often askquestions. What do I do if I findabandoned wildlife? Well, most of time thewildlife aren’t actually abandoned, their parentis just off doing something else,especially in the case of deer. So, it’snot uncommon to find a deer or fawnin the woods just laying by itself, andthat is its natural strategy to avoidpredators. So, it just lays as still aspossible and uses its spots ascamouflage to hide from predators. So,the mom has not abandoned it, she has justleft it to go out and forage to be able to nurse thatfawn. So,most time when you think you findabandoned wildlife, you’re not actuallyfinding abandoned wildlife, theparent has just left the area for a timebeing to do something else. Maybe youscared it off as you walked up, maybeshe’s out finding food to feedthe young, that kind stuff. But, if youhappen to find an animal thatyou’re certain is abandoned, the bestoption is tojust kind of walk away and leave that animalalone, and if you’re worried that it’sinjured, you can actually call a wildliferehabilitator. The Indiana DNRmaintains a lists list of licensedwildlife rehabilitators in the state. I’m going to try to put that list andthat website in the comment section. But I think you shouldn’t think that ifyou see an animal without a parent aroundthat animals been abandoned ororphaned. Most of time it’s not, and ifyou leave the area that animal’sparent is gonna come back and fetch thatthat baby. Keep them wild, don’tpick them up and take them home oranything like that, that’s probably theworst thing you can do. Great, always goodadvice. Let the parents handle it. Parents know best. Well thank you guys. I know there’s a fewother questions in our comment section,but we will get to those offline. We havesome other experts that may be more tiered to those questions. So if you didn’tget your question answered, please knowthat we do see it and we are gonna getthe proper expert in touch with you toanswer that. So, feel free to add more ifyou have them. I want to thank Jarred and Mitch forsharing their time with us. Please go totheir website, The Pond and WildlifeWebsite that’s Extension. Purdue. edu/PondWildlife, and you can get allkinds of resources there includingpeople within your county that you cancontact if you have wildlife and pondmanagement questions. You can alwaysreach out to Mitch and Jarred on Twitter. Jarred is @Purduewildlifer and Mitchis @TheAussieWahoo. We tagged them in ourtweets as well, so you can reach out tothem that way as well. We will see younext week back at the same time, sameChannel at 3:00 p. m. on Thursday. We’llbe talking about invasivespecies and what you can do with LizJackson and Lenny Farlee. So, thanks againJarred and Mitch. Great information ,andhopefully it has helped you as you lookforward to managing your pond and land for wildlife and fish. Great, thanks for having us. Yeah, thank you.